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  • A-NPA

    advance notice of proposed amendments


    advanced surface movement guidance and control system

  • A-VDGS

    advance visual docking guidance system

  • AARC

    aircraft airworthiness review certificate

  • AC, A/C, ac, a/c, acft (ICAO)


  • ACAS

    airborne collision avoidance system

  • ACC

    acceptance; area control centre

  • ACN

    aircraft classification number

  • ACNS

    airborne communications, navigation and surveillance

  • AD

    airworthiness directive; aerodrome (ICAO)

  • ADR


  • ADTS-B

    advanced driver training simulator BMP-3

  • ADTS-L

    advanced driver training simulator leclerc

  • AeMC

    aero-medical centre

  • AFC

    approval of flight conditions

  • AFM

    aircraft flight manual

  • AGL

    above ground level

  • AIP

    aeronautical information publication


    aeronautical information regulation and control


    aircraft proximity

  • AIS

    aeronautical information services


    as low as reasonably practicable

  • AltMoC

    alternative means of compliance

  • AMC

    acceptable means of compliance

  • AME

    aero-medical examiner

  • AML

    aircraft maintenance licence

  • AMM

    aircraft maintenance manual

  • AMO

    approved maintenance organisation

  • AMS

    apron management services

  • ANS

    air navigation services

  • ANSP

    air navigation service provider

  • AOC

    air operator certificate


    abbreviated precision approach path indicator

  • APU

    auxiliary power unit

  • AR

    authority requirements

  • ARA

    authority requirements (in the aircrew Regulation)

  • ARC

    aerodrome reference code

  • ARO

    authority requirements (in the air operations Regulation)

  • ASBU

    aviation system block upgrades

  • ASC

    Air Safety Committee

  • ASDA

    accelerate-stop distance available


    abbreviated T - visual approach slope indicator system

  • ATA

    Air Transportation Association

  • ATC

    air traffic control

  • ATCO

    air traffic controller

  • ATIS

    automatic terminal information service

  • ATM

    air traffic management

  • ATO

    approved training organisation

  • ATP / ATR

    acceptance test procedure / report

  • ATPL

    airline transport pilot licence

  • ATS

    air traffic services

  • ATT


  • ATTN


  • AUR

    airspace usage requirements

  • AWO

    all-weather operations


    All Weather Operations Steering Group (JAA)

  • BASA

    Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement

  • BPL

    balloon pilot licence

  • BR

    Basic Regulation (Regulation (EU) 2018/1139 (OJ L 212, 22.8.2018, p. 1))

  • C/S

    certifying staff; cycles per second

  • CA

    competent authority

  • CAA

    civil aviation authority

  • CAEP

    Committee on Aviation Environmental Protection

  • CAMO

    continuing airworthiness management organisation

  • CAT

    commercial air transport; clear-air turbulence

  • CAW

    continuing airworthiness

  • CBR

    California bearing ratio

  • CBT

    computer-based training

  • CC

    cabin crew

  • CCA

    cabin crew attestation

  • CCD

    cabin crew data

  • CCM

    cabin crew member

  • CDL

    configuration deviation list

  • CDR

    critical design review

  • CEO

    chief executive officer


    Computer Emergency Response Team of the EU Institutions

  • CGA

    clear and graded area

  • CIE

    International Commission on Illumination (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage)

  • CLS

    control loading system

  • CM

    certification memorandum

  • CMPA

    complex motor-powered aircraft

  • CNS

    communications, navigation and surveillance

  • CO/CO2

    carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide

  • COA

    continuing airworthiness organisation

  • CofA

    certificate of airworthiness

  • COM

    commercial other than CAT communications

  • CON

    conversion of national licences

  • COTS

    commercial off-the-shelf

  • CP

    concept paper


    controller-pilot data link communications

  • CPL

    commercial pilot licence

  • CRC

    cyclic redundancy check

  • CRD

    comment-response document

  • CRE

    class rating examiner

  • CRI

    certification review item

  • CRM

    crew resource management

  • CRS

    certificate of release to service

  • CRT

    comment-response tool

  • CS-22

    Certification Specifications for Sailplanes and Powered Sailplanes

  • CS-23

    Certification Specifications for Normal, Utility, Aerobatic and Commuter Aeroplanes

  • CS-25

    Certification Specifications and Acceptable Means of Compliance for Large Aeroplanes

  • CS-26

    Additional Airworthiness Specifications for Operations

  • CS-27

    Certification Specifications and Acceptable Means of Compliance for Small Rotorcraft

  • CS-29

    Certification Specifications and Acceptable Means of Compliance for Large Rotorcraft

  • CS-31GB

    Certification Specifications and Acceptable Means of Compliance for Free Gas Balloons

  • CS-31HB

    Certification Specifications and Acceptable Means of Compliance for Hot Air Balloons

  • CS-31TGB

    Certification Specifications and Acceptable Means of Compliance for Tethered Gas Balloons

  • CS-34

    Certification Specifications, Acceptable Means of Compliance and Guidance Material for Aircraft Engine Emissions and Fuel Venting

  • CS-36

    Certification Specifications, Acceptable Means of Compliance and Guidance Material for Aircraft Noise


    Certification Specifications and Acceptable Means of Compliance for Airborne Communications, Navigation and Surveillance


    Certification Specifications and Guidance Material for Aerodromes Design

  • CS-APU

    Certification Specifications, including Airworthiness Codes and Acceptable Means of Compliance, for Auxiliary Power Units

  • CS-AWO

    Certification Specifications, including Airworthiness Codes and Acceptable Means of Compliance, for All Weather Operations

  • CS-CCD

    Certification Specifications and Guidance Material for Cabin Crew Data

  • CS-Definitions

    Definitions and abbreviations used in the Certification, Specifications for Products, Parts and Appliances

  • CS-E

    Certification Specifications and Acceptable Means of Compliance for Engines


    Certification Specifications for European Technical Standard Orders

  • CS-FCD

    Certification Specifications for Operational Suitability Data (OSD). Flight Crew Data

  • CS-FSTD(A)

    Certification Specifications for Aeroplane Flight Simulation Training Devices

  • CS-FSTD(H)

    Certification Specifications for Helicopter Flight Simulation Training Devices

  • CS-FTL.1

    Certification Specifications and Guidance Material for Commercial Air Transport by Aeroplane. Scheduled and Charter Operations

  • CS-FTL.2

    Certification Specifications and Guidance Material for Commercial Air Transport by Aeroplane. Air Taxi Operations and Aeroplane Emergency Medical Service (AEMS) Operations

  • CS-FTL.3

    Certification Specifications and Guidance Material for Commercial Air Transport by Helicopter. Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) Operations


    Certification Specifications and Guidance Material for Generic Master Minimum Equipment List

  • CS-LSA

    Certification Specifications and Acceptable Means of Compliance for Light Sport Aeroplanes


    Certification Specifications and Guidance Material for Master Minimum Equipment List

  • CS-P

    Certification Specifications for Propellers


    Certification Specifications and Guidance Material for Simulator Data


    Certification Specifications for Standard Changes and Standard Repairs

  • CS-VLA

    Certification Specifications for Very Light Aeroplanes

  • CS-VLR

    Certification Specifications and Acceptable Means of Compliance for Very Light Rotorcraft

  • CS(s)

    certification specification(s)

  • CT


  • CTS-B

    Crew Training Simulator Leclerc

  • CTS-L

    Crew Training Simulator Leclerc

  • CVR

    cockpit voice recorder

  • CWY


  • D-ATIS

    data link-automatic terminal information service


    data link - VOLMET

  • DA

    decision altitude

  • DA/H

    decision altitude/height

  • DEC

    declaration; declared

  • DEF


  • DG

    Directorate-General; Director-General

  • DGCA

    Directors General Civil Aviation (ICAO); Directorate-General of Civil Aviation

  • DGs

    dangerous goods

  • DH

    decision height

  • DME

    distance-measuring equipment

  • DOA

    design organisation approval

  • DTO

    declared training organisation

  • E



    European Authorities Coordination Group on Flight Data Monitoring

  • EASA

    European Union Aviation Safety Agency


    EASA Management Board

  • EASA Training Credits Definition

    The value of the training performed using FSTDs is recognised within the EASA regulation (and more widely, internationally) by the ability to replace or complement actual flight training hours by instruction hours on flight training devices. The amount of training hours that may be performed on the FSTD towards the minimum hours required for the issue of a licence, rating or certificate is known as ?Training Credit?.

  • EASP

    European Aviation Safety Programme

  • EASp

    European Aviation Safety Plan

  • EBT

    evidence-based training

  • EC

    European Community

  • ECAC

    European Civil Aviation Conference


    European Commercial Aviation Safety Team


    European Centre for Cybersecurity in Aviation

  • ECofA

    export certificate of airworthiness

  • ECQB

    European Central Question Bank

  • ED

    Executive Director

  • EDD

    Executive Director Decision

  • EEA

    European Environment Agency

  • EEC

    European Economic Community

  • EFTA

    European Free Trade Association


    European General Aviation Safety Team


    European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service


    European Helicopter Safety Team


    European Helicopter Safety Implementation Team

  • ELOS

    equivalent level of safety

  • ELT

    emergency locator transmitter

  • EMAS

    engineered material arresting system

  • EMK

    emergency medical kit

  • END

    EU Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/EC (OJ L 189, 18.7.2002, p. 12)


    European Operators Flight Data Monitoring forum

  • EP

    European Parliament

  • EPAS

    European Plan for Aviation Safety (former ?EASp?)

  • ER

    essential requirement

  • ESPN-R

    European Safety Promotion Network Rotorcraft

  • ESSI

    European Strategic Safety Initiative


    extended range operation; extended twin-engine operation; extended range operation by twin-engined aeroplane

  • ETS

    EU emissions trading system

  • ETSO(A)

    European Technical Standard Order (authorisation)

  • EU

    European Union

  • EU-OPS

    It stands for Regulation (EC) No 859/2008 of 20 August 2008 amending Council Regulation (EC) No 3922/91 as regards common technical requirements and administrative procedures applicable to commercial transportation by aeroplane. It represents the basis of commercial air transport (CAT) operations with aeroplanes, on which the CAT operations requirements for aeroplanes in the current Commission Regulation (EU) No 965/2012 on air operations were built.

  • EVP

    executive vice president

  • EVS

    enhanced vision system

  • FAA

    Federal Aviation Administration (USA)

  • FAB(s)

    functional airspace block(s)

  • FAK

    first aid kit

  • FAT

    factory acceptance test

  • FC

    flight crew

  • FCD

    flight crew data

  • FCL

    flight crew licensing

  • FCM

    flight crew member

  • FDM

    flight data monitoring

  • FDP

    flight duty period

  • FDR

    flight data recorder

  • FE

    flight examiner

  • FFS

    Full-Flight Simulator Highest level of technical complexity and training capability in the EASA and FAA regulations. In addition to the FTD definition, the FFS provides a vibration and cabin motion capability. The qualification levels range from A to D, although some lower levels are rarely used (level A in particular). The higher qualification levels bring a very comprehensive training capability to checking and testing. OPC: Operator Proficiency Check PC: for Proficiency Check LC: for Line Check.

  • FI

    flight instructor

  • FIC

    flight information centre

  • FIE

    flight instructor examiner

  • FIR

    flight information region

  • FIS

    flight information service

  • FL

    flight level

  • FMEA

    failure modes and effects analysis

  • FNPT

    Flight and Navigation Procedures Trainer: First qualification level defined in the EASA regulation. This generic system is a very cost effective solution and a different training syllabus may be used for ab-initio, Multi Crew Cooperation (MCC) and procedural navigation training towards the instrument rating. This may be also a very efficient tool to demonstrate safety procedures and good practises such as the ones Training Leaflet1. The qualification level ranges from highlighted in the HE1 I (without visual and motion system) to II and III (with visual reference system).

  • FOD

    foreign object damage/debris

  • FRMS

    fatigue risk management system

  • FS

    flight standards

  • FSTD Qualification Levels, defined in the CS-FSTD (H)

    1. FNPT I, II, III (Flight and Navigational Procedures Trainer) 2. FTD 1, 2, 3 (Flight Training Device) 3. FFS A, B, C, D (Full-Flight Simulator)

  • FSTD Types Overview

    The different types of helicopter flight simulation training devices are defined in the EASA CS-FSTD (H) (Certification Specification for Flight Simulation Training Device). The definitions encompassed in this specification include the technical minimum requirements/standards for each level of qualification (or type) and the acceptable means of compliance to demonstrate compliance with the defined standards. Note: For the same type name, the definition included in the EASA regulation may differ from that included in the FAA regulation, because currently these two regulation standards are not fully harmonised.

  • FTD

    Flight Training Device In addition to the FNPT definition, this FSTD features helicopter type specific simulation models, which bring the capability to perform type rating training. This type of FSTD has a limited checking/testing capability due to the fact that it does not include a motion system or a vibration system. The main technical features and training capabilities are presented in Figure 2. There are three levels of FTD qualification (1, 2, and 3); however, there are limited training credits available for level 1 FTDs. The main application of the FTD (level 2 and 3) is type rating training. An FTD 2/3 can also be used for Instrument Rating (IR) revalidation (Part FCL.625 H IR). Note: Although FTD 3 features higher quality flight model fidelity, it does not bring any additional training credits as compared with FTD 2.

  • FTE

    full-time equivalent

  • FTI

    flight test instructor

  • FTL

    flight time limitations

  • FTL.1

    commercial air transport by aeroplane - scheduled and charter operations

  • FTS

    flight time specifications

  • GA

    general aviation


    GLObal NAvigation Satellite System

  • GM

    guidance material

  • GMP

    general medical practitioner

  • GNSS

    global navigation satellite system

  • GPWS

    ground proximity warning system

  • H


  • HAPI

    helicopter approach path indicator


    hazard and operability

  • HB

    hot-air balloon

  • HC


  • HEFA

    hydroprocessed esters and fatty acid

  • HELO

    helicopter external load operation

  • HEMS

    helicopter emergency medical services

  • HHO

    helicopter hoist operations

  • HIGE

    hover in ground effect

  • HOGE

    hover out of ground effect

  • HSST

    Helicopter Sub-Sectorial Team (JAA)


    head-up display landing system

  • HV

    height velocity

  • HVO

    hydrotreated vegetable oil

  • IA

    impact assessment

  • IAS

    indicated airspeed

  • IATA

    International Air Transport Association

  • IAW

    initial airworthiness

  • IBIS

    ICAO bird strike information system

  • ICA

    instructions for continued airworthiness

  • ICAO

    International Civil Aviation Organization


    ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices

  • IED

    improvised explosive device


    International Federation of Air Line Pilots' Associations

  • IFR

    instrument flight rules

  • IHST

    International Helicopter Safety Team

  • ILS

    instrument landing system

  • IMC

    instrument meteorological conditions

  • INS

    inertial navigation system

  • IORS

    Internal Occurrence Reporting System

  • IPR

    intellectual property rights

  • IR

    implementing regulation; implementing rule

  • IRE

    instrument rating examiner

  • IRI

    instrument rating inspector

  • ISA

    International Standard Atmosphere

  • ISO

    International Organization for Standardization

  • item


  • JAA

    Joint Aviation Authorities

  • JAR

    Joint Aviation Requirement

  • KPI

    key performance indicator

  • LAPL

    light aircraft pilot licence

  • LCFZ

    laser-beam critical flight zone

  • LDA

    landing distance available

  • LDAH

    landing distance available (helicopter)

  • Lden/Lnight

    day-evening-night/night-time average sound level

  • LFFZ

    laser-beam free flight zone

  • LIC


  • LO

    learning objective

  • LoA

    letter of agreement

  • LOCI

    loss of control in flight

  • LOFT

    line-oriented flight training

  • LoI

    level of involvement

  • LPL

    leisure pilot licence

  • LRI

    Line Replaceable Item

  • LRST

    local runway safety team

  • LSA

    light sport aeroplane

  • LSFZ

    laser-beam sensitive flight zone

  • LTO

    landing and take-off

  • LVO

    low-visibility operations

  • LVP

    low-visibility procedures

  • MAB

    Member States Advisory Body

  • MB

    Management Board

  • MC

    medical certificate

  • MCCI

    multi-crew cooperation instructor

  • MCF

    maintenance check flight

  • MDA

    minimum decision altitude

  • MDA/H

    minimum descent altitude/height

  • MDH

    minimum decision height

  • MDM

    multi-disciplinary measure

  • MED


  • MEL

    minimum equipment list

  • MET


  • MLRs

    manuals, logs and records

  • MLS

    microwave landing system

  • MMEL

    master minimum equipment list

  • MNPS

    minimum navigation performance specification

  • MOA

    maintenance organisation approval

  • MoM

    minutes of meeting

  • MPE

    maximum permissible exposure

  • MPL

    multi-crew pilot licence

  • MPSC

    maximum passenger seating configuration

  • MRB

    Maintenance Review Board

  • MRI

    mountain rating instructor

  • MS(s)

    Member State(s)

  • MTO

    maintenance training organisation

  • Mtoe

    million tonnes of oil equivalent

  • MTOM

    maximum take-off mass

  • MTOW

    maximum take-off weight

  • N-CMPA

    non-complex motor-powered aircraft

  • NAA

    national aviation authority


    navigation aid

  • NCC

    non-commercial air operations with complex motor-powered aircraft

  • NCO

    non-commercial air operations with other than complex, motor- powered aircraft

  • NextGen

    Next Generation Air Transportation System (FAA)

  • NOTAM(s)

    notice(s) to airmen

  • NOX

    nitrogen oxides

  • NPA

    notice of proposed amendments

  • NSA

    national supervisory authority

  • NVIS

    night-vision imaging system

  • OCA/H

    obstacle clearance altitude/height

  • OEM

    Original Equipment Manufacturer

  • OFZ

    obstacle-free zone

  • OHMP

    occupational health medical practitioner

  • OJ

    Official Journal of the European Union

  • OLS

    obstacle limitation surfaces

  • OM

    operations manual

  • OPC

    operator proficiency check

  • OPS


  • OPSG

    Operational Procedures Steering Group (JAA)

  • OR

    organisation requirements

  • ORA

    organisation requirements (in the aircrew Regulation)

  • ORO

    organisation requirements (in the air operations Regulation)

  • OSAT

    on-site acceptance test

  • OSC

    operational suitability certificate

  • OSD

    operational suitability data

  • P



    Pan-European Partners; Pan-European Partner Countries

  • PANS

    procedures for air navigation services


    Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations (ICAO)

  • PAPI

    precision approach path indicator

  • PBN

    performance-based navigation

  • PBR

    performance-based regulation

  • PC

    performance class

  • PCM

    project certification manager

  • PCN

    pavement classification number

  • PDR

    Preliminary Design Review

  • PFI/E

    Purchaser Furnished Item/ Equipment

  • PIC


  • PL

    pilot licence

  • PM

    particulate matter; project manager

  • POA

    production organisation approval

  • PPB

    principal place of business

  • PPL

    private pilot licence

  • PPO

    principal place of operation

  • PRB

    performance review board

  • QE

    qualified entity

  • R/T


  • RAG

    Rulemaking Advisory Group

  • RESA

    runway-end safety area


    rapid exit taxiway indicator lights

  • RFFS

    rescue and firefighting services

  • RFP

    Request for Proposal

  • RFQ

    Request for Quotation

  • RG

    review group

  • RI

    rectification interval

  • RIA

    regulatory impact assessment

  • RIE

    rectification interval extension

  • RM


  • RMG

    rulemaking group

  • RNAV

    area navigation

  • RNP

    required navigation performance

  • RO

    regulations officer

  • rpm

    revolutions per minute

  • RSC

    Rotorcraft Sectorial Committee

  • RST

    Reiser Simulation and Training GmbH

  • RTC

    restricted type certificate

  • RTF


  • RVR

    runway visual range

  • RVSM

    reduced vertical separation minima

  • RWY


  • SAB

    Stakeholders Advisory Body

  • SACA

    safety assessment of community aircraft

  • SAFA

    safety assessment of foreign aircraft

  • SE-IMC

    single engine - instrument meteorological conditions

  • SEC


  • SERA

    Standardised European Rules of the Air

  • SES

    single European sky


    single European sky ATM research

  • SFE

    synthetic flight examiner

  • SFI

    synthetic flight instructor

  • SFL

    safe forced landing

  • SIB

    safety information bulletin

  • SIC

    safety information communication

  • SIMD

    simulator data

  • SKPI

    safety key performance indicator


    surface movement guidance and control system

  • SMM

    safety management manual

  • SMS

    safety management system

  • SNP

    specified navigation performance

  • SOP

    standard operating procedure

  • SOW

    statement of work

  • SP

    safety promotion; safety publication

  • SPA

    specific approval

  • SPL

    sailplane pilot licence

  • SPN

    Safety Promotion Network; specific performance-based navigation

  • SPO

    specialised operations

  • SSP

    State safety programme; State safety plan

  • SSR

    secondary surveillance radar

  • STAN

    standard changes and standard repairs

  • STC

    supplemental type certificate

  • STD

    synthetic training device

  • STeBs

    Stakeholders Technical Bodies

  • STI

    synthetic training instructor


    structured what-if technique

  • SWY


  • TAA

    technical assistance agreement

  • TAG

    Thematic Advisory Group

  • TAWS

    terrain awareness warning system

  • TC

    type certificate

  • TCCA

    Transport Canada Civil Aviation

  • TCO

    third-country operator

  • TDZ

    touchdown zone

  • TeBs

    Member States Technical Bodies

  • TEM

    threat and error management

  • TGB

    tethered gas balloon

  • TGL

    Temporary Guidance Leaflet (JAA)

  • TI

    Technical Instructions (ICAO)

  • TK

    theoretical knowledge

  • TOA

    training organisation approval

  • TOCS

    take-off climb surface

  • TODA

    take-off distance available

  • ToR

    terms of reference

  • TORA

    take-off run available

  • TRA


  • TRE

    type rating examiner

  • TRI

    type rating inspector; type rating instructor

  • TRR

    test readiness review

  • TSO

    Technical Standard Order

  • UA

    unmanned aircraft

  • UAS

    unmanned aircraft system

  • UAV

    unmanned aerial vehicle

  • UG

    user guide

  • UPRT

    upset prevention and recovery training

  • US

    United States

  • VFR

    visual flight rules

  • VLA

    very light aeroplane

  • VLJ

    very light jet

  • VLR

    very light rotorcraft


    meteorological information for aircraft in flight

  • VOR

    very high frequency omnidirectional range

  • WA

    working arrangement

  • WG

    working group

  • WGS

    world geodetic system

  • WHO

    World Health Organization

  • WI

    work instructions

  • WIP

    work in progress

  • WOCL

    window of circadian low

  • WP

    working paper

  • ZFTT

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